mumps n : an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands [syn: epidemic parotitis]
- Bosnian: zauške
- Czech: příušnice
- Dutch: bof
- Estonian: mumps
- Finnish: sikotauti
- French: oreillons
- German: Mumps
- Greek: παρωτίτιδα
- Indonesian: beguk
- Italian: parotite epidemica , orecchioni
- Japanese: 流行性耳下腺炎 (りゅうこうせいじかせんえん)
- Neapolitan: recchiune
- Portuguese: caxumba
- Russian: заушница (zaúšnica) , свинка (svínka)
- Spanish: paperas, parotiditis
- Swedish: parotit, påssjuka
Mumps or epidemic parotitis is a viral disease of the human species. The word "mumps" originally meant "to mumble", and came to be applied to the disease because of the side effects it causes. Prior to the development of vaccination and the introduction of a vaccine, it was a common childhood disease worldwide, and is still a significant threat to health in the third world.
Painful swelling of the salivary glands (classically the parotid gland) is the most typical presentation.,, The disease is generally self-limited, running its course before receding, with no specific treatment apart from controlling the symptoms with painkillers.
SymptomsThe more common symptoms of mumps are:
- Parotid inflammation (or parotitis) in 60–70% of infections and 95% of patients with symptoms. Parotitis causes swelling and local pain, particularly when chewing. It can occur on one side (unilateral) or both sides (bilateral).
- Orchitis, referring to painful inflammation of the testicle. Males past puberty who develop mumps have a 30 percent risk of orchitis.
Other symptoms of mumps can include sore face and/or ears and occasionally in more serious cases, loss of voice.
ProdromeFever and headache can occur already as prodromal symptoms of mumps, together with malaise and anorexia.
Signs and testsA physical examination confirms the presence of the swollen glands. Usually the disease is diagnosed on clinical grounds and no confirmatory laboratory testing is needed. If there is uncertainty about the diagnosis, a test of saliva, or blood may be carried out; a newer diagnostic confirmation, using real-time nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, has also been developed . An estimated 20%-30% of cases are asymptomatic.
TreatmentThere is no specific treatment for mumps. Symptoms may be relieved by the application of intermittent ice or heat to the affected neck area and by Acetaminophen/Paracetamol (Tylenol) for pain relief. Aspirin use is discouraged in young children because of studies showing an increased risk of Reye's syndrome. Warm salt water gargles, soft foods, and extra fluids may also help relieve symptoms.
Patients are advised to avoid fruit juice or any acidic foods, since these stimulate the salivary glands, which can be painful.
PrognosisDeath is very unusual. The disease is self-limiting, and general outcome is good, even if other organs are involved. Mumps viral infections in adult males carries a 25% risk that the testes may become infected leading to sterility. After the illness, life-long immunity to mumps generally occurs.
ComplicationsKnown complications of mumps include:
- Infection of other organ systems
- Sterility in men (this is quite rare, and mostly occurs in older men)
- Mild forms of meningitis (rare, 40% of cases occur without parotid swelling)
- Encephalitis (very rare, rarely fatal)
- Profound (91 dB or more) but rare sensorineural hearing loss, uni- or bilateral
- Pancreatitis manifesting as pain abdomen and vomiting
- Oophoritis (inflammation of ovaries) but fertility is rarely affected.
PreventionThe most common preventative measure against mumps is immunization with a mumps vaccine. The vaccine may be given separately or as part of the MMR immunization vaccine which also protects against measles and rubella. In the US, MMR is now being supplanted by MMRV, which adds protection against chickenpox. The WHO (World Health Organization) recommends the use of mumps vaccines in all countries with well-functioning childhood vaccination programmes. In the United Kingdom it is routinely given to children at age 15 months. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the routine administration of MMR vaccine at ages 12-15 months and at 4-6 years. In some locations, the vaccine is given again between 4 to 6 years of age, or between 11 and 12 years of age if not previously given. Efficacy of the vaccine depends on the strain of the vaccine, but is usually around 80%., The Jeryl Lynn strain is most commonly used in developed countries, but has been shown to have reduced efficacy in epidemic situations. The Leningrad-Zagreb strain is commonly used in developing countries, but appears to have superior efficacy in epidemic situations.
Some anti-vaccine activists protest against the administration of a vaccine against mumps, claiming that the attenuated vaccine strain is harmful, and/or that the wild disease is beneficial. Disagreeing, the WHO, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain currently recommend routine vaccination of children against mumps. The British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain had previously recommended against general mumps vaccination, changing that recommendation in 1987. In 1988 it became United Kingdom government policy to introduce mass child mumps vaccination programmes with the MMR vaccine, and MMR vaccine is now routinely administered in the UK.
Before the introduction of the mumps vaccine, the mumps virus was the leading cause of viral meningoencephalitis in the United States. However, encephalitis occurs rarely (less than 2 per 100,000). In one of the largest studies in the literature, the most common symptoms of mumps meningoencephalitis were found to be fever (97%), vomiting (94%) and headache (88.8%). The mumps vaccine was introduced into the United States in December 1967: since its introduction there has been a steady decrease in the incidence of mumps and mumps virus infection. There were 151,209 cases of mumps reported in 1968. Since 2001, the case average was only 265 per year, excluding an outbreak of >6000 cases in 2006 attributed largely to university contagion in young adults.
- Original version based on the National Library of Medicine's Medline Plus website. Update Date: 08/15/01. Update date included for cross-reference against newer versions.
- NHS.uk – Encyclopedia – 'NHS Direct Online Health Encyclopaedia: Mumps', National Health Service (UK)
- WHO.int – "Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals: Mumps vaccine", World Health Organisation
- MicrobiologyBytes: Paramyxoviruses"
- nih.gov – "NIH database entry: complete genome of Miyahara strain of Mumps"
- cdc.gov – Collection of information from the CDC concerning mumps
mumps in Arabic: نكاف
mumps in Czech: Příušnice
mumps in German: Mumps
mumps in Spanish: Parotiditis
mumps in French: Oreillons
mumps in Indonesian: Beguk
mumps in Italian: Parotite epidemica
mumps in Hebrew: חזרת (מחלה)
mumps in Latin: Parotitis epidemica
mumps in Luxembourgish: Mumps
mumps in Dutch: Bof
mumps in Japanese: 流行性耳下腺炎
mumps in Norwegian: Kusma
mumps in Polish: Nagminne zapalenie przyusznic
mumps in Portuguese: Parotidite infecciosa
mumps in Romanian: Parotidită epidemică
mumps in Russian: Эпидемический паротит
mumps in Finnish: Sikotauti
mumps in Swedish: Påssjuka
mumps in Tagalog: Beke
mumps in Turkish: Kabakulak
mumps in Chinese: 腮腺炎
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